2. Dimensions

a. Distance

Distances in surveying may be measured in horizontal, vertical, or slope directions, Figure D-1.

Figure D-1

Generally the result of a distance measurement is expressed either as a horizontal or vertical value.

In addition to orientation, a distance has a begin, end, and magnitude. All must be either expressed or implied by the type of distance to avoid ambiguity. For example when I stated my height:

  • orientation: vertical implied

  • begin: floor implied

  • end: top of my head implied

  • magnitude: 5’11”

b. Angle

Angles are measured in a vertical or horizontal direction, Figure D-2; slope angles aren’t intentionally measured.

(a) Vertical

(b) Horizontal

Figure D-2

Along with its orientation, an angle has four parts, Figure D-3:

  • Start

  • Direction

  • Magnitude

  • End


Figure D-3
Angle Parts