Coordinate Geometry (COGO) provides a surveyor with useful computational tools. The principles involved are trigonometric attributes of triangles along with forward and inverse computations. Including simple circular arc geometry facilitates determination of curvilinear traverse area and point positions.

Care must be taken using data for COGO calculations. In many cases there may be just enough measurements to compute positions without having an independent check. Errors can't be isolated or eliminated. Additional measurements should be included where ever possible.

While discussion here is limited to two-dimension applications, COGO is easily expanded into three dimensions by adding elevation data.