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2. Procedure
An open traverse< Figure I2, is closed by making it meet the closure condition:
Equation J1 
Figure J2 
When the latitudes and departures are added, the amount by which they don't equal zero are the latitude and departure of the closing line, Figure I3.

Figure J3 
Equation J2 
Once the latitude and departure of the closing line are determined, its length and direction can be computed from equations we've used before:
Equation J3 

Equation J4 
The mathematical signs on the closing latitude and departure determine in which quadrant the line is.