I'm updating and reformatting some existing material and adding new. I'll be working on this for a month or two so check back periodically.

Material Organization

Subject matter is arranged by Topic in the Main Menu. Selecting a Topic lists its Chapters which in turn are further divided into Sections.

Content is evolving and will be added as time permits. This is a one-man show so please let me know of grammar errors, typos, etc. Suggestions for other Topics or additions to existing ones are always welcome.

A site account is not necessary to access or use any of the Open Access material. However, having an account will allow a user to leave comments and feedback in each topic area (comments can be viewed without an account). If you would rather email me than create an account, I can be reached at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Terms of Use

By accessing this material you agree to these terms of its use:

  • Copyright of all non-attributed material on this site is retained by me, Jerry Mahun.
  • You are granted permission to use any of this material (text and/or images) in support of surveying education.
  • Material used shall be appropriately credited.

Because the material is freely provided and intended solely for educational purposes, there is no warranty as to its applicability or appropriateness of use. The author does not assume any liability for damages resulting from its use.

updated 27 Aug 2018

It's been a while since I've added material to the website, but I'm working on a few things.

  • The COGO topic has just been updated and expanded to include alternative intersection computations. A supportive Excel workbook has also been added.
  • Adding more example and self-study problems.
  • Cleaning up format inconsistencies on the entire site. 
  • Making user comments easier to add (for registered users; comments will be visible to all users).

If you have suggestions for the website, typo or grammar corrections, additional or expanded topics, please let me know. Some topics might be beyond the scope of this material (and my expertise) but I will gladly incorporate what I can when I can. 

updated 20 Jul 2020

Equation 1:

Equation 2:

Equation 3:


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posted 12 Jun 2018